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Physic-geographical particularities of the national reservoir
Просмотров: 4294   Дата публикации: 18-05-2010, 22:18
The climatic conditions in the region of the Tigrovaja Balka can be characterized as following: a long hot summer, short winter, a wide range of daily temperature (from day to night) and exposed and sparse setting, falling to the cold season of the year. The dusty south-western winds -"Afghans" are not uncommon in the Tigrovaja Balka

The average annual temperature is between +16C to +17C. The monthly average temperature in the coldest month of January is +1C to +2C. However, sometimes air temperature can drop to -8C to -10C. Precipitation is particularly in the cold period, falling as rain and a wet snow. This constitutes 70% to 75% of the annual amount or 100-180 mm. The snow quickly melts and does not form flat snow cover. The average temperature in July, the warmest month, is around 40C, however, the absolute maximum can reach as much as 55C.

Flora and phytome.

The high water table in the flood land terraces, continuously supplied and refreshed by the river water, and in the nearby periodic overflow of the past, creates damp and humid air conditions for the phytome throughout the year in the reserve. The originality of ecological conditions also concludes that long, dry summers leading to drought create dry air conditions. These contrasting relations of soil and atmospheric humidity determine the condition of the existence of typha phytomes.
The Typha fields in the beginning of its development are connected with shore species open grassy vegetation, establishing on young sandbank and the lower river terraces. On the present territory of the national reserve, the typha fields occupy 25 thousand hectares. The typha of the left shore of the Vakhsh River, of 11 to 12 thousand hectares is preserved best of all.

Wood vegetation of the Tigrovaja Balka is represented by Elaeagnaceae, Turangs and mixed Turangs and Elaeagnaceae species. Elaeagnaceae fields are in neat, closed rows of the planting of oleaster (elaeagnus) with the narrow leaf, or djigdy (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). Grassy vegetation is almost absent due to strong shading at ground level. Herbs such as: licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), Erianthus ravennae (L.) P. Beauv., Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., camel's-thorn (Alhagi canescens (Rgl.) Shap.ex Keller et Shap.), swallow-wort (Cynanchum sibiricum Willd.), scabrous kendyr (Trachomitum scabrum (Russan.) Pobed.) and others develop on the edges of the forest.

There are fewer and fewer old oleaster, with large diameter stem and height, and they are limited on a separate area of the national reserve. Elaeagnaceae fields are developing on the 1st and the 2nd terraces near the river bed in a small part of the valley, rising for 1.5 to 3 m above the river level. The fruits of oleaster have great importance as a source of food for mammals and birds of the national reserve.

Turang are predominant in the fields, sometimes with a scattering of Populus ariana Dode. The grassy cover amongst these trees is represented by Imperata cylindrica, licorice, swallow-wort, reed and many other types. The average height of the wood tier is 6 to 12 (16) m. The general covering of ground by grassy vegetation reaches 60 to 70% percent. The height of the grassy tier is 70 to150 cm. The undergrowth in the Poplar fields is mostly absent or consists of the rare bush of Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb, Halostachys belangeriana (Mog.) Botsch and Lycium ruthenicum Murr.
Natural renewal of trees in the poplar fields is nearly completely absent.

The Poplar- Elaeagnaceae fields in the flood lands of the Vakhsh River are distributed in small separate populations. They are mostly in well-spaced rows. The main role in their building belongs to oleaster, while poplar occupies either the intermediate position between the main woods and grassy tier, or represented by small amounts of equal height specimens. The relative position and composition of grassy plants is the same which is in Turang and Elaeagnaceae fields.

On the saltiest soil of the Tigrovaja Balka, due to the low level of the ground water (1.5 to 5 m) bush- halophyte species are developing. These bush species are essentially the final stage of development of typha vegetation and are spread in flood lands. Vakhsh is wide enough and they become an important part of the scenery on the first and second terraces. The most common of these bush species are: Tamarix hispida Willd, Halostachys belangeriana (Mog.) Botsch, Lycium ruthenicum Murr, Suaeda microphylla Pall.); the grassy cover forms from: Aeluropus litoralis (Gouan) Parl., Artemisia ferganensis Krasch.ex Poljak, Zygophyllum oxianum Boriss, Alhagi canescens (Rgl.) Shap.ex Keller et Shap. and a few other types (including ephemeredes).

The herbal vegetation cover within these bush species is generally rare. The general covering of the ground under halophyte bush vegetation is uneven and varies from 15% to 70%. The height of tier bush is between 1.2 to 3 m, reaching 4 to 5 m in some situations; their diameter being from 0.2 to 0.6.

The distribution of the grassy cover amongst the bush species is mostly mosaic; moreover the thickest grassy cover is noted in the bushy zone. On the non salty or slightly salty area of the river valley, in places where the soil water is lower, we find particular types of bush species, such as the Tamarix meyeri Boriss., Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.

Desert vegetation in the national reserve is spread within the sandy massif of Kashkakum, which is represented by rows of hills of wind blown sand, with fluctuation of the heights from 2 to 8 to10 m. The vegetation is represented with sturdy clumps of evenly spaced mixed composition bush tier, which is 0.2 to 0.4 in diameter and 1.5 to 2 m in height. These bush species include; the Haloxylon aphyllum (Minkw.) Iljin., some types of djusgun (Calligonum griseum Korov., ex Pavl., C microcarpum Borszcz) and Salsola richteri Kar. In some parts of the area there present Zygophyllum gontscharovii Boriss, Aellenia subaphylla (C.A.Mey) Aell), Hammada leptoclada (M.Pop) Iljin., sometimes in noticeable amounts and some other types of bushes.
The grassy vegetation is different in that it consists of small species generally with small leaves to conserve water. The major component of the grassy tier consists of species such as; Carex physodes M.B, (Poa bulbosa L.),Trigonella geminiflora Bge, Anisanthe tectorum L and Artemisia scopaeformis Ledeb.

In the early spring, the ground it is moist enough to support fluffy growing herbage such as the ephemeras and ephemeredes.
On the top of Buritau and on the mountain Hodzha-Kozion the vegetation is basically represented by low grass of the semi savannas type.
Meadows and grassy marsh grow around the mountain streams. The meadows are represented as Broom and Ajrech species in the national reserve. The grassy marsh is formed by the common reed and reed mace species. There are also Imperata cylindrica, Erianthus ravennae and Calamus species present. Grassy liana and plant-parasite – povelica lemana are widespread in the wooden typha.

Staritsi Lake deserves particular attention. They are generally surrounded by almost complete ring of the reed. Reed rush does not form any significant thickets and there is less reed mace in all lakes. Parrot's-feather, fennel-leaved pondweed dominates amongst the thickest vegetation and sometimes you can see naiad. Lake Kabaniego is covered by the thick thicket of hornweed on its bed.
For general information we will mention the more well known names of the lakes. Sometimes they are named in the memory of fisherman. (Dedovo lake, Fomkin back water), who fished there before the establishment of the national reserve. Sometimes, the name of lake emphasizes that in the neighbourhoods there dwelt some types of the wildlife, for example Kabanie lake. Sometimes the lake name corresponds to the colour and composition of water. For example, Blue back water and Tuhloe lake. Besides the above mentioned in the Tiger Wildlife Sanctuary, there are also other lakes in the reserve such as: Dzhilikuli, Gulikovskoe, Korchevoe, Bazovskoe, Horseshoe, Pioneer, Grant-Sack, Halka-Sack, Small blue pool, Fervour-Sack and others.

 

 
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